London has been the financial hub of the United Kingdom and a major trade and business centre since the Middle Ages. Today the city competes with New York City for the status of the world’s major financial centre. English trust laws and strong libel laws attract foreign business. Along with this, the city enjoys a strong advantage thanks to a well-entrenched commercial culture. Businesses may leverage the city’s strong networking base and financiers.
of the major financial institutions currently having their headquarters in London are:
Bank of England
London Stock Exchange
London Bullion Market
Lloyd’s of London
Financial Services Authority (FSA)
The Financial Services Authority (FSA) is an independent non-governmental body, given statutory powers by the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000. FSA is accountable to Treasury Ministers and, through them, Parliament. FSA is operationally independent of government and is funded entirely by the firms it regulates.
FSA now operates as two different units
Financial Conduct Authority (FCA)
FCA regulates the financial services industry in the UK. FCA’s aim is to protect consumers, ensure the industry remains stable and promote healthy competition between financial services providers.
FCA has rule-making, investigative and enforcement powers that it uses to protect and regulate the financial services industry.
BOE Prudential Regulation Authority
The PRA was created by the Financial Services Act (2012) and is a part of the Bank of England. It has close working relationships with other parts of the Bank, including the Financial Policy Committee and the Special Resolution Unit.
The PRA works alongside the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) creating a “twin peaks” regulatory structure in the UK. The FCA is a separate institution and not part of the Bank of England. The FCA is responsible for promoting effective competition, ensuring that relevant markets function well, and for the conduct regulation of all financial services firms. This includes acting to prevent market abuse and ensuring that consumers get a fair deal from financial firms. The FCA operates the prudential regulation of those financial services firms not supervised by the PRA, such as asset managers and independent financial advisers.
Metropolitan Police: Specialist, Organised & Economic Crime
The command has the lead for investigating all economic crime; including ecrime, corruption, human trafficking and prostitution providing a national response to extradition cases, mutual legal assistance and art & antiques crime. The command also deals with asset recovery through the London Regional Asset Recovery Team and the Criminal Finance Team. The command is also responsible for investigating all serious organised crime, such as kidnap, robbery and middle market drugs supply.